Three groups of bitches were treated with diethylstilbestrol (75 micrograms/kg) orally for 7 days (n = 12), estradiol cypionate intramuscularly once (22 micrograms/kg; n = 12), or estradiol cypionate intramuscularly once (44 micrograms/kg; n = 12). Treatments commenced during late proestrus (n = 4/group), the fourth day of behavioral estrus (n = 4/group), or the second day of diestrus (n = 4/group). All bitches were bred on alternate days throughout estrus to stud dogs of known fertility. Ovariohysterectomies were performed on day 25 of diestrus to diagnose pregnancy and to assess any pathologic changes in the uterus. Eleven bitches treated with diethylstilbestrol, 6 bitches treated with the low dosage of estradiol cypionate, and 4 bitches receiving the high dosage of estradiol cypionate were pregnant at the time of surgery. Ten of the bitches treated with estrogens during proestrus, 6 treated during estrus, and 4 treated during diestrus were pregnant. The serum concentration of progesterone in 2 bitches treated with the high dosage of estradiol cypionate decreased to less than 2 ng/ml by day 25 of diestrus, suggesting premature luteal regression. Diethylstilbestrol appeared to have little efficacy in terminating pregnancy. Estradiol cypionate appeared to have greater efficacy when administered during estrus or early diestrus; however, pyometra developed in 2 bitches treated with this estrogen during diestrus.